Thursday, December 26, 2019
Give me Equality or Give me Death Women in combat, a hindrance or the advance we need in our military combat units. Should women be allowed to be in combat units with their male counterparts? This is a topic of interest because discrimination is something that is vanishing as this country is learning to adjust to change. The fact that discrimination is making its way out of society is all the reason why women should be looked at as equal to their male counter parts. In the Article: Arguing For and Against Women in Combat in 1978, two different viewpoints were argued between women who had both been very high ranking in the military. One of the women was Elizabeth Hoisington, one of the first women to attain the rank of BrigadierÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If a woman wanted to be as physically qualified as a man she could be. She may have to work a little bit harder to get there but she could. Although I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree fully with what was said, I have become a little skeptical in allowing women in combat a s well as others. On the other hand the differing opinion in this article coming from Jeanne Holm, a Major General in the Air Force and the first woman to achieve the rank of a two star general in any branch of the military, thought Ã¢â¬Å"the time had long since come for women to serve their nation in combat units.Ã¢â¬ Although she did have some doubt about women going directly into infantry units she thinks women should be put on ships and planes as the first step. Hoisington did express that she thought having two people of opposite gender could interfere with the mission. Not only could attraction interfere with the mission at hand but also the fact that men have a natural instinct to protect women could also be a very big problem. Both women did agree Ã¢â¬Å"The No.1 criterion must be the ability of the unit to perform its combat mission. Everything else should be secondary to that,Ã¢â¬ which is absolutely true. The soldiers should be focused solely on the missio n at hand. Can someone truly say a woman would be the primary reason as to why the mission was compromised? Not at all if men could keep their focus only on the mission then there should be no reason as to
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Egyptians Nearly 5000 years ago, two kingdoms surrounded the Nile river, the North around the mouth of the river and the South stretched along the river for hundreds of miles. The Egypt weÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with begins with King Menes, the first Pharaoh. Under his command, the South conquered the Northern lands unifying the two nations into what we now consider Ancient Egypt. Even though the two kingdoms were greatly different, they did have one enormous element in common, the Nile River. Each spring the southern snow would melt and cause flooding; the waters overflowed and replenished the soil, promising a large harvest that autumn. The entire kingdom vitally depended on this natural rhythm. When western historians created the study of Egyptology they quickly learned the field would need to be simplified. With the help of intellectual locals and decades of work, a previously monumental mass of records was divided into an accepted group of 33 dynasties over 3 periods. On the other hand, the Egyptians never saw their Kingdom divided in that way; to them, Egypt was one, strong, unified land ruled by a godlike Pharaoh providing safety for his people eternally. Harmony (MaÃ¢â¬â¢at) is a concept Egypt loved to obsess over; they believed in an endless flow that life and even death allowed them to experience. Practically all surviving remnants from the Old Kingdom period are the grand tombs and burial sites of the royals, often giving us the wrong impression that death haunted the Egyptians.Show MoreRelatedDifferences Between Ancient Egypt And Egypt1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEgyptians BASIC INFO 5000 years ago, there were two kingdoms in Egypt, the North by the mouth of the Nile and the South stretching along the river for hundreds of miles. The kingdom weÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with begins with King Menes, the first Pharaoh. Under his command, the South attacked and conquered the Northern lands unifying the two nations into what we now consider Ancient Egypt. Despite popular opinion, the land wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t dominated by desert; all along the Nile were lush lands, perfect for growing aRead MoreDifferences Between Ancient Egypt And Egypt1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages there were two kingdoms surrounding the Nile, the North around the mouth of the river and the South stretched along the river for hundreds of miles. The Egypt weÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with begins with King Menes, the first Pharaoh. Under his command, the South conquered the Northern lands unifying the two nations into what we now consider Ancient Egypt. Even though the two kingdoms were very different, they did have one eno rmous element in common, the Nile River. Each spring the southern snow would melt andRead MoreDifferences Between Ancient Egypt And Egypt1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyears ago, two kingdoms surrounded the Nile river, the North around the mouth of the river and the South stretched along the river for hundreds of miles. The Egypt weÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with begins with King Menes, the first Pharaoh. Under his command, the South conquered the Northern lands unifying the two nations into what we now consider Ancient Egypt. Even though the two kingdoms were greatly different, they did have one enormous element in common, the Nile River. Each spring the southern snow would meltRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthere existed two main civilizations: Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, and Ancient Egypt along the Nile. Even though Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt were both advanced civilizations they had many differences such as their government, religion, as well as their trade and society. Mesopotamian culture thought negatively about its gods, and had conflict, cultural diffusion, and a decentralized government while Ancient Egypt thought highly of its gods, had a centralized andRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between The Middle Kingdom And Ancient Egypt891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDespite the ancient Egyptians conservative nature and keeping to their core values, there were many changes within the infrastructure of their society during the middle kingdom. When Historians and scholars study the Old Kingdom, and the Middle Kingdom, One will notice that alterations to their religion, art, and architecture changed through both periods in history. Internal forces, as well as outside influences, shaped ancient Egyptian civilization. One would argue that the terms Old, middle andRead MoreSimilarities Between Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshistory are Anc ient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, because of the different geography, exposure to outside invasion, influence, and beliefs, Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia came to not only contrast in political and social structures but also share similarities in them as well. When it came to the development of Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations politics played a prominent role in structuring the very foundation of each respective civilization. For instance, when it came to Ancient EgyptRead MoreEssay about Religion in Ancient China and Egypt1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Dixon 1 Daniel Dixon Dr. Campbell History 114 3/20/14 Religion in Ancient China and Egypt Religion has played a very important role in society and the history of mankind for over thousands of years. Originally created by ancient peoples as a way to explain the unknown, religion has greatly evolved and spread across the globe. As new religions have formed and spread, the diversity and similarities between these new religions have also increased, especially due to their geographic locationsRead MoreSimilarities Between Ancient Egypt And Ancient Greece1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAncient Egypt (3000 BCE Ã¢â¬â 30 BCE) and Ancient Greece (1200 BCE Ã¢â¬â 146 BCE) based their entire lives around their religious beliefs. These beliefs led to their religious practices which were included in every aspect of their lives. Since ancient GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s and ancient EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs differ greatly, endless differences can be shown between their religious practices. However, between the two cultures, many surprising similarities can be seen in these religious practices despit e the tremendous differencesRead MoreEssay On Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia867 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Though most ancient civilizations settled on rivers, each one tended to be different due to the characteristics of their nearby rivers. Two civilizations that differed significantly from one another were the civilizations of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. Not only are the rivers of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt seemingly perfect to compare, but the two civilizations also existed around the same time as one another; meaning that the overall impact of their respective rivers on their societies canRead MoreEssay about Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Ancient Egypt and Ancient GreeceÃ¢â¬ According to history there existed two of many important ancient civilizations that left a significant mark in the history of human development that even today leaves modern society in awe of its greatness. In spite of being distant civilizations, Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece share similarities and difference in terms of how they practiced religion,political structure, everyday life style, and how they built the monumental architectures that continued to amaze
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
George Boole Essay, Research Paper George Boole was a mathematician in the nineteenth century. He helped set up modern symbolic logic and created algebra of logic, which they now called Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra is basic to the design of digital computing machines that we use today. George s father, a shopkeeper, gave Boole his first math lessons. He besides taught George how to do optical instruments. Boole was largely self-taught in math, even though he spent a few old ages in public schools and had a small aid from his male parent. After a piece, his male parent s concern started to worsen. Boole now had to work to back up his household. At the age of 16, he started learning in small town schools in the West Riding in Yorkshire. At the age of 20, Boole opened his ain school in Lincoln. Whenever George had some leisure clip on his custodies, he would read mathematics diaries. We will write a custom essay sample on George Boole Essay Research Paper George Boole or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Most of these diaries were from 18th to early nineteenth century Gallic mathematicians. After he spent a piece reading these books, he started work outing complex jobs in algebra. Boole besides realized that his algebra could besides be applied to logic. Boole submitted many of his ain composings to the Cambridge Mathematical Journal beginning in 1839 with his tungsten ork Researches on the Theory of Analytical Transformations. His plants were largely about differential equations and the algebraic job of additive transmutation. These plants emphasized on the construct of invariability. In 1844, Boole discussed how methods of algebra and concretion could be combined. He wrote about this in another work of his called Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. In the twelvemonth 1854, Boole published another work called An Probe into the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, which he regarded as a mature statement of his thoughts. In the twelvemonth, 1854 started the logic of algebra, or Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra is two-valued in that it involves a subdivision of objects into separate categories, each with a given belongings. Different categories can so be treated as to the presence or absence of the same belongings. In 1857, Boole was elected as a chap of the Royal Society. These are some of the many grounds why Boole has helped the modern usage of Boolean algebra and other things that have to make with logic. It is besides because of him that we have computing machines. Without logic, or Boolean algebra, we likely would non hold computing machines today.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Mom died five minutes ago.Ã¢â¬ I looked up at my dad, understanding in that moment that our 15-month ordeal was over. My life could finally begin again. My mom was diagnosed with stage four colon cancer in 2008. I spent my entire sophomore year with cancer as the first thing on my mind when I woke and the last when I went to sleep. My problems, my life, did not matter for over a year. My mom bravely fought the disease, surviving a year longer than doctors expected. I was there for every step of it. I watched as the radiation made her hair fall out, as the chemotherapy ate away at her. I sat by, helpless, as the cancer ravaged her body. After 15 months of this, the only thing I wanted for her was for it to end. Eight days after my sixteenth birthday, it did. Relief dulled every other emotion. We will write a custom essay sample on Wag Every Day or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was over, and I could finally live again. I felt alive for the first time in more than a year. Smiles could reach my eyes; my laugh became bubbly. A great weight had lifted from my shoulders. I could relax and focus on things other than cancer. I slowly began to regain everything I had lost during that year. Walking into school my first day of junior year was when it really hit me how different my life was now. Everyone stared at me, even my best friend, whom I had seen since my moms death. It was as though I was expected to be completely depressed and sad. There is a look that people give when something terrible has happened: a slight tilt of the head, pursing of the lips, arch of the eyebrows, and a soft sigh. My first few weeks back at school, this look followed me everywhere, from teachers and students alike. My moms favorite quote was Ã¢â¬Å"Wag your whole body every day.Ã¢â¬ In other words, live life to the fullest as if it were your last day. I refused to let my moms death take me down. I would not allow myself to spiral into depression. Life needs to be enjoyed to the fullest because it can be over quicker than expected. A day spent in a terrible mood is a day that has not been lived to the fullest. I take the awful and find a bright side. If I did not do this, I would not have made it through that year. After my mom died, I was able to live again. I was able to wake up in the morning and not think about doctors appointments and cancer. I felt lighter than I had that whole year. This happiness was not because my mom was gone, but because I had faced a tough situation and survived. I am not afraid for the future and what it will bring. I know that I can tackle any challenge that life gives me. I just remind myself to smile, relax, and always wag my whole body every day.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Biography of Daniel Webster, American Statesman Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782Ã¢â¬âOctober 24, 1852) was one of the most eloquent and influential American political figures of the early 19th century. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives, in the Senate, and in the executive branch as the Secretary of State. Given his prominence in debating the great issues of his day, Webster was considered, along withÃ Henry ClayÃ andÃ John C. Calhoun, a member of the Great Triumvirate. The three men, each representing a different region of the country, defined national politics for several decades. Fast Facts: Daniel Webster Known For: Webster was an influential American statesman and orator.Born: January 18, 1782 in Salisbury, New HampshireParents: Ebenezer and Abigail WebsterDied: October 24, 1852 in Marshfield, MassachusettsSpouse(s): Grace Fletcher, Caroline LeRoy WebsterChildren: 5 Early Life Daniel Webster was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire, on January 18, 1782. He grew up on a farm, and worked there during the warm months and attended a local school in the winter. Webster later attended Phillips Academy and Dartmouth College, where he became known for his impressive speaking skills. After graduation, Webster learned the law by working for a lawyer (the usual practice before law schools became common). He practiced law from 1807 until the time he entered Congress. Early Political Career Webster first attained some local prominence when he addressed an Independence Day commemoration on July 4, 1812, speaking on the topic of the war, which had just been declared against Britain by President James Madison. Webster, like many in New England, opposed the War of 1812. He was elected to the House of Representatives from a New Hampshire district in 1813. In the U.S. Capitol, he became known as a skillful orator, and he often argued against the Madison administrations war policies. Webster left Congress in 1816 to concentrate on his legal career. He acquired a reputation as a highly skilled litigator and argued several prominent cases before the U.S. Supreme Court during the era of Chief Justice John Marshall. One of these cases, Gibbons v. Ogden, established the scope of the U.S. governments authority over interstate commerce. Webster returned to the House of Representatives in 1823 as a representative from Massachusetts. While serving in Congress, Webster often gave public addresses, including eulogies for Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (who both died on July 4, 1826). He became known as the greatest public speaker in the country. Senate Career Webster was elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts in 1827. He would serve until 1841, and would be a prominent participant in many critical debates. Webster supported the passage of theÃ Tariff of AbominationsÃ in 1828, and that brought him into conflict with John C. Calhoun, the intelligent and fiery political figure from South Carolina. Sectional disputes came into focus, and Webster and a close friend of Calhoun, Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina, squared off in debates on the floor of the Senate in January 1830. Hayne argued in favor of states rights, and Webster, in a famous rebuttal, forcefully argued for the authority of the federal government. The verbal fireworks between Webster and Hayne became something of a symbol for the nations growing divisions. The debates were covered in detail by newspapers and watched closely by the public. As theÃ Nullification CrisisÃ developed, Webster supported the policy ofÃ President Andrew Jackson, who threatened to send federal troops to South Carolina. The crisis was averted before violent action took place. Webster opposed the economic policies of Andrew Jackson, however, and in 1836 he ran for president as a Whig againstÃ Martin Van Buren, a close political associate of Jackson. In a contentious four-way race, Webster only carried his own state of Massachusetts. Secretary of State Four years later, Webster again sought the Whig nomination for president but lost toÃ William Henry Harrison, who won the election of 1840. Harrison appointed Webster as his Secretary of State. President Harrison died a month after taking office. As he was the first president to die in office, there was a controversy over presidential succession in which Webster participated.Ã John Tyler, Harrisons vice president, asserted that he should become the next president, and theÃ Tyler PrecedentÃ became accepted practice. Webster was one of the cabinet officials who disagreed with this decision; he felt that the presidential cabinet should share some of the presidential powers. After this controversy, Webster did not get along with Tyler, and he resigned from his post in 1843. Later Senate Career Webster returned to the U.S. Senate in 1845. He had tried to secure the Whig nomination for president in 1844 but lost to longtime rival Henry Clay. In 1848, Webster lost another attempt to get the nomination when the Whigs nominatedÃ Zachary Taylor, a hero of theÃ Mexican War. Webster was opposed to the spread of slavery to new American territories. In the late 1840s, however, he began supporting compromises proposed by Henry Clay to keep the Union together. In his last major action in the Senate, he supported theÃ Compromise of 1850, which included the Fugitive Slave Act that was highly unpopular in New England. Webster delivered a highly anticipated address during Senate debates- later known as the Seventh of March Speech- in which he spoke in favor of preserving the Union. Many of his constituents, deeply offended by parts of his speech, felt betrayed by Webster. He left the Senate a few months later, whenÃ Millard Fillmore, who had become president after the death of Zachary Taylor, appointed him as Secretary of State. In May 1851, Webster rode along with two New York politicians, Senator William Seward and President Millard Fillmore, on a train trip to celebrate the new Erie Railroad. At every stop across New York State crowds gathered, mostly because they were hoping to hear a speech by Webster. His oratory skills were such that he overshadowed the president. Webster tried again to be nominated for president on the Whig ticket in 1852, but the party chose General Winfield Scott at aÃ brokered convention. Angered by the decision, Webster refused to support Scotts candidacy. Death Webster died on October 24, 1852, just before the general election (which Winfield Scott would lose toÃ Franklin Pierce). He was buried in Winslow CemeteryÃ inÃ Marshfield, Massachusetts. Legacy Webster cast a long shadow in American politics. He was greatly admired, even by some of his detractors, for his knowledge and speaking skills, which made him one of the most influential political figures of his time. A statue of the American statesman stands in New Yorks Central Park. Sources Brands, H. W. Heirs of the Founders: the Epic Rivalry of Henry Clay, John Calhoun and Daniel Webster, the Second Generation of American Giants. Random House, 2018.Remini, Robert V. Daniel Webster: the Man and His Time. W.W. Norton Co., 2015.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
20 Synonyms for Law, Order, or Rule 20 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"Law,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Order,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"RuleÃ¢â¬ 20 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"Law,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Order,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"RuleÃ¢â¬ By Mark Nichol Many words exist that refer to an expectation expressed by an authoritative person or entity, and sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to distinguish such terms when one tries to convey a reference to a law, an order, or a rule. Here are some synonyms for those words, along with definitions. 1. Behest: an order or prompting 2. Charge: an order, or information given to a jury about the applicability of law to a specific case 3. Command: an order, especially one given by a superior officer in a military or law enforcement hierarchy, or a signal that leads to an action 4. Commandment: something ordered 5. Decree: an order, or a decision by a judicial or religious official 6. Demand: an order with an expectation of compliance and a consequence for noncompliance 7. Dictate: an order or rule; also synonymous with injunction and prescription 8. Direction: an order, or an indication of how actions should occur in a performance or how music should be played 9. Directive: an order issued by a government entity, an official, or an organization 10. Edict: an order or proclamation 11. Imperative: an order or a rule, or a similar statement 12. Injunction: an order, or a legal requirement to do or not do something 13. Instruction: an order or direction; also synonymous with precept 14. Mandate: an order handed down from one court or other judicial body to another, or an authorization granted to a government official or a government, an order for establishment of a government, or a territory under such an order 15. Ordinance: a law or order established by a government entity, especially on the municipal level, a specified ceremony or custom, or something ordered by a god or determined by fate 16. Precept: an order given to an official by the personÃ¢â¬â¢s superior, or an order or a principle that is to be considered a general rule 17. Prescription: a right or title, an establishment of a rule, a claim or rule or tradition based on custom, a direction for preparation and/or use of a medicine or similar treatment, or the medicine or treatment itself 18. Regulation: a procedural rule, or an order enforceable by a government agency, or the act or state of developing one or more such rules 19. Statute: a law developed by a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s legislative branch, the documentation for creating an agency and specifying its authority and scope, or a rule established by a corporation 20. Word: a direction or order Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them)Body Parts as Tools of MeasurementPreposition Mistakes #1: Accused and Excited
Thursday, November 21, 2019
International Human Resource Analysis - Essay Example One of the most important responsibilities of the managers in any organisation is to create an effective organisational structure. One of the unique characteristics of this organisation is that, every individual is perfectly informed of his responsibilities and duties and the various processes of interactions and communication is very well synchronised (Business Insight, n.d.).Cognitive Capacity of the European Multinational CompanyIt is seen that as firms tend to expand their business internationally, managers face information processing demands. Multinational organisations are more equipped to identify and interpret critical information available all over the world. This is because operating in multiple shores has exposed them to a variety of foreign customer base, investors, and employee communities, cultural and sociological structures. Cultural heterogeneity is one area that this company has to take into consideration because it directly influences the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability o f processing information, identifying environmental changes and reacting accordingly.Strategies of the European Multinational FMCG Company as a Multinational EnterpriseThere are several advantages that this company enjoys by having subsidiary branches in different parts of the world. Firstly, this company can achieve economies of scale and scope in the foreign country. This European FMCG company manufactures products in the domestic market and exports the good through agents in the foreign market.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire - Essay Example The first part of this quotation suggests that without the historical backdrop of the Roman Empire, and without the cultural and political directives it brought to bear, the Christian religion could never have come to be, at least not in the form that we know. The second portion of the quotation suggests that the Christian religion has preserved the memory and something of the auspices of the Great Empire, as a necessary component of cultural transmission--as a necessary if incidental consequence of preserving and furthering itself. In large measure, both assertions are true. The Roman Empire made Christianity possible, first by bringing relative order and stability to those under its governance. Without the rise of the Roman city-state under a central power, it is easy to imagine small, disparate tribes of rural, agrarian folk remaining close to the cycles of nature and loyal to the simple ritual observances of old pagan polytheism. Next, for all its dealings with the eternal, Chris tianity is a religion with strong historical and political roots. The historical embeddedness of this religion is undeniable. As Harold Mattingly points out, "All the great religions of the world speak to the passing generations of that which is outside the time order, the Eternal, that 'which was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be.' Some of these religions--not all--are very closely related to history. Mohammed, great prophet of Islam, rose to sudden greatness at the very moment in the seventh century when the empires of Rome and Persia had fought one another to a standstill. Jesus Christ, the Eternal Word, 'who was in the beginning with God', was born in the Palestine of Herod the Great and, as we repeat in the Creed, 'suffered under Pontius Pilate'. The sacred history of Mithras, on the other hand--his birth from the rock, his solemn meal with the Sun-god, his slaying of the great bull--is quite outside time. The early history of Christianity cannot be fully understood wi thout a knowledge of the world into which it came" (5). The world into which this new faith emerged was characterized by expanding empire, with the burdens of increasing taxation to fund the political and military machine and establish the benefits of relative peace, political unity and solidarity under the Roman Emperor. This was also a world where people maintained a belief in many gods and observed ritual sacrifices to those gods in exchange for good fortune. The statues and temples of these gods were visited and given homage by people of all stations, including the Emperor himself. Iconic images were engraved upon the coinage of the Empire, and the line between fidelity to the old gods and fidelity to the Empire of Rome was often blurred. Therefore, the emergence of an exclusive, monotheistic religion, that shunned all the vestiges of the older religions, offered a certain threat to political stability. The attitudes of the Roman Emperors and their officiators toward the Christians, in the first centuries of the new faith, varied from blind indifference to outright persecution, depending upon the emperor and the climate of the times. Likewise the attitudes of the Christians toward the Roman State varied, from individual to individual and from time to time, as the new religion grew. According to Grant, "Within the Christian communities of the second century two different but equally extreme minority positions were assumed. On the one hand, there were those, especially in Asia Minor, who under the influence of apocalyptic prophecy insisted upon an intensified expectation of the imminent end of society and the descent of the "heavenly Jerusalem" in Phrygia. On the other, there were those who turned their backs on the world and took the gospel to the world through the planetary spheres above and come to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Renaissance Erasmus Essay The Renaissance was a period of great change, characterized by a revision of many concepts and the birth of many ideas. One of the greatest scholars of this time was Desiderius Erasmus. He was born in Rotterdam, Holland. His birth name was Gerrit . He attended the school of the Brothers of the Common Life at Deventer after which he joined a monastery, the Augustinian college of Stein near Gouda where he stayed for six years. He was ordained to the Catholic priesthood at Steyn at about the age of 25, but he did not last in the priesthood for long. Later, he became a personal secretary of the Bishop of Cambrai. His experience working for the church made him aware of the many evils that plagued it. He was a great critic of the church and its leaders before and during the reformation. It has been said by many that Erasmus was one of the few humanists who left a lasting mark in the history of human kind. His fearless criticism of the manner in which the church handled various issues prepared people for the subsequent work of another humanist and reformist, Martin Luther. Erasmus was a traveler. He lived in many places in Europe at different times. He had lived in Rome, Paris, England, and many other European countries. He was also a theology scholar and a writer. He published the Greek version of the New Testament in Latin, so that Europeans could read it. Thesis Statement This paper examines the humanist actions of Erasmus and his contribution to the history of the Christian faith. Literature Review As a great humanist in the 1500s, Erasmus wrote many books which were widely read all across. His ideas and criticism of the Church was therefore heard throughout Europe. He preferred reasoning to bloodshed, unlike many others of his time. While he did not criticize the Church as much as Luther had, he did call for an end to the corruption and a great many other evils which had seeped to the core of the Church. Erasmus was a renowned writer of his time. One of his greatest works include ed The Praise of Folly, a satire which pointed out major problems in the clergy, depicting monks as beggars, the clergy as being greedy. He also made reference to the pope saying that he had no resemblance to the apostles. He also wrote a short satirical skit in which Pope Julius II had trouble getting into heaven. This kind of writing earned him considerable hostility in the church, but then, this kind of courage also helped the church. Some of the subjects he attacked were superstitious religious practices and the vanity of Church leaders. One such superstition was the sale of Indulgences by the Church, which its leaders sold in order to raise money for building projects. Indulgences were supposed to reduce the time a sinner would spend in purgatory. Erasmus felt that this was an abuse of priestly power. He was against the idea of people praying to the Saints instead of God, because he recognized that salvation came only through Christ. His goal was to promote basic Christian values. Erasmus was accused of being only a specialist in grammar and rhetorician, not a theologian, and some modern scholars have shared that same sentiment. Recent scholarship has been more agreeable to the view that Erasmus was in some sense a theologian even if not a systematic one. Erasmus was, to be sure, a rhetorician, but one whose rhetoric was Ã¢â¬Å"in service of his theology and whose rhetorical theology thus reveals some truths that would otherwise remain hiddenÃ¢â¬ . Erasmus is known today as a great 16th century pacifist. He used his gift of writing to preach peace. He felt that war was senseless since it only caused destruction and death. He rebuked those who engaged in war he saying that they had no greater morality than beasts. According to Kreis, Erasmus stands as the Ã¢â¬Ësupreme type of cultivated common sense applied to human affairsÃ¢â¬â¢. He rescued theology from the lack of creativity of the schoolmen, exposed the abuses of the Church, and did more than any other single person to advance the revival of learningÃ¢â¬â¢. In the sixteenth century when literature was used to conceal the truth about a number of issues, Erasmus admired and despised by both Catholics and Protestants, by both liberals and radicals; but according to theological scholar, Abraham Friesen the theological views of Erasmus can today reconcile Evangelical and liberal Christians. Methodology I collected my information through book and article research, most of which came from the internet. I also interviewed two theologians on what they thought about Erasmus. Data Analysis The data I gathered was mostly from books and articles. I found out that Erasmus work elicited a lot of ill-feeling among Christians during the reformation, with many clergy accusing him of pioneering the reformation that led to the split of the church. However some scholars point out that the church began appreciating the work of Erasmus later in his life. One of the people I interviewed said that although Erasmus was much hated for his criticisms against the church, his work proved to be beneficial to the Christian faith, in that he was able and courageous enough to pinpoint the evils in the church. Thus, he gave the church a reason to examine and reform itself. Results The method of data collection was limited to book research and interviews. These were not enough to prepare a comprehensive and detailed research. I also faced some difficulties finding interviewees who were conversant with the life and works of Erasmus. Discussion A lot of scholars agree that Erasmus actually was for rather than against the church. He was a fierce critic of both the liberal and radical wings of the church. He spoke against anything that to him appeared to be against Biblical teachings. He was alienated from both sides of the church, though the same people who had earlier alienated him later sought him out. His courage and relentlessness bore fruit. The church began to examine itself in light with what Erasmus and other critics of the time had talked about. The role that Erasmus played in the 16th century reformation cannot be downplayed. Midmore contends that Erasmus sought peace and unity if necessary by compromise, and he also promoted the corporate rather than the individual renewal of the church. Conclusion The debate on what Erasmus did or did not do will undoubtedly rage on for a long time to come. However form what I have gathered in this research, it is clear that he left an indelible mark in the history of the church. He was a fearless critic of the abuses in the Catholic Church, even before the reformation. He might not have been in most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s good books, but he his work served as a form of checks and balances against the excesses of the church. That is why he will forever be remembered as the man who laid the egg of reformation, though he did not hatch itÃ¢â¬â Martin Luther did, as the 16th century aphorism goes. Bibliography Biography of Historical Figures [database on-line]. Available from studyworld. com Friesen, Abraham. Erasmus, the Anabaptists, and the Great Commission. (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1998). Midmore Brian. The reformation Ã¢â¬â Erasmus and Luther. (2000) [database on-line]. Available from Ã¢â¬ËA Passion for Grace and FaithÃ¢â¬â¢ website. Rummel, Erika. Erasmus (New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004)
Friday, November 15, 2019
Immigration to the United States Works Cited Not Included Immigration to the United States has been happening since the Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock in 1492. America is one of the most diverse nations in the world, attracting people from every corner of the globe in hopes of a better way of life. America in the past has relied on migrant workers to balance the economies growth when internal resources have been exhausted; moreover, the agriculture business has depended on the seasonal employment of migrant workers from Mexico to meet the labor demand. Programs have been created in the past granting work contracts for the flood of Mexican labor into the United States, and new work programs are being analyzed to suffice the needs of the agriculture business today. During World War II America was pushed to exhaustion trying to reach the labor efforts needed to support the war. Looking for a way to relieve the tension, the federal government came to an agreement with the Mexican government to allow contract workers in to come to the United States to assist the agriculture business in the Southwest. From 1942 to 1964 the Bracero work program supplemented the America workforce. Almost 4.5 million flooded America, a vast majority of these workers were allocated to three states: California, Arizona, and Texas. Four terms where met between Mexico and America federal government, these four terms laid out the ground rules for the program until its fall in 1964. These four terms are stated as: 1. Mexican contract workers would not engage in U.S. military service. 2. Mexicans entering the U.S. under provisions of the agreement would not be subjected to discriminatory acts. 3. Workers would be guaranteed transportation, ... ...ct), is even more expansive because, though it would not permit the guest workers to become immigrants, it would not be limited to agricultureÃ¢â¬ (Guthrie). This provision would combat illegal immigration, by offering the opportunity of documented workers in the United States. Illegal immigration into the United States is becoming more of an issue, and harder to control. A program that allows the government to oversee and regulate immigration is necessary in the near future. America can not eliminate illegal immigration, but it could regulate it. A major issue with immigration work, is that all the money made by the immigrants is not invested into AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, but sent back to the families in Mexico. A program would not eliminate negative impacts of illegal immigration; moreover, it would control the problems, enabling the government to regulate immigration. Immigration to the United States Essay -- Immigrants USA Borders Essay Immigration to the United States Works Cited Not Included Immigration to the United States has been happening since the Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock in 1492. America is one of the most diverse nations in the world, attracting people from every corner of the globe in hopes of a better way of life. America in the past has relied on migrant workers to balance the economies growth when internal resources have been exhausted; moreover, the agriculture business has depended on the seasonal employment of migrant workers from Mexico to meet the labor demand. Programs have been created in the past granting work contracts for the flood of Mexican labor into the United States, and new work programs are being analyzed to suffice the needs of the agriculture business today. During World War II America was pushed to exhaustion trying to reach the labor efforts needed to support the war. Looking for a way to relieve the tension, the federal government came to an agreement with the Mexican government to allow contract workers in to come to the United States to assist the agriculture business in the Southwest. From 1942 to 1964 the Bracero work program supplemented the America workforce. Almost 4.5 million flooded America, a vast majority of these workers were allocated to three states: California, Arizona, and Texas. Four terms where met between Mexico and America federal government, these four terms laid out the ground rules for the program until its fall in 1964. These four terms are stated as: 1. Mexican contract workers would not engage in U.S. military service. 2. Mexicans entering the U.S. under provisions of the agreement would not be subjected to discriminatory acts. 3. Workers would be guaranteed transportation, ... ...ct), is even more expansive because, though it would not permit the guest workers to become immigrants, it would not be limited to agricultureÃ¢â¬ (Guthrie). This provision would combat illegal immigration, by offering the opportunity of documented workers in the United States. Illegal immigration into the United States is becoming more of an issue, and harder to control. A program that allows the government to oversee and regulate immigration is necessary in the near future. America can not eliminate illegal immigration, but it could regulate it. A major issue with immigration work, is that all the money made by the immigrants is not invested into AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, but sent back to the families in Mexico. A program would not eliminate negative impacts of illegal immigration; moreover, it would control the problems, enabling the government to regulate immigration.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Common Misconceptions In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, many people have started to develop misconceptions about sports supplements. Because people started this mentality, they have tried to make their own misconceptions about them and telling other people to avoid them. Sports Supplements, also known as ergogenic aids, are products to enhance athletic performance. These products contain minerals, herbs, vitamins, amino acids, and botanicals. (TeensHealth 1) One of the common misconceptions of sports supplements is that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t help the human body gain muscle, but instead fat. The 1) In reality, some people have and see results of the supplements within a week, like enhances the personÃ¢â¬â¢s workouts by going for longer reps, reduces the time of recovery, and gains muscle mass. (The 1) Another known common misconception of sports supplements is that will sports supplements cause me to get muscle cramps and or get injured. Most of the sports supplements well cause you to cramp u p during athletic events, but the leading sports supplement that well cause you to cramp up easily is creatine. Bodybuilding. com 1) If any athlete who uses creatine gets a cramp, they well get told itÃ¢â¬â¢s the side effect of creatine usage, but in reality itÃ¢â¬â¢s the lack of dehydration, improper electrolyte balance, or variety of other factors that can result in cramping. (Bodybuilding 1)Even though some athletes think that sports supplements well make them cramp, they also think that the supplements well make their injury risk increase. However, not any sports supplements increase the ability of injuries. Bodybuilding 1) Ã¢â¬Å"Quite to the contrary actually; a study conducted using 72 NCAA division 1 football players as subjects found that the athletes supplementing with creatine experienced less muscle cramps, muscle tightness, muscle strains, dehydration and total injuries. Ã¢â¬ (Bodybuilding 1) Will sports supplements make me a better athlete? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s another common misconception of sports supplements. Many companies say that their supplement well make you a better athlete or stronger, but in reality it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give you the ability to make you a better athlete or the strengthness to lift more weights for more reps. TeensHealth 1) Ads for sports supplements often use persuasive before and after pictures that make it look easy to get a muscular, toned body. But the goal of supplement advertisers is to make money by selling more supplements, and many claims may be misleading. (TeensHealth 1) Instead, sports supplements helps the person who is taking it, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give any potential ability to the person whom is taking it.TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re many different types of factors that go into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s athletic body like diet, how much sleep they get, genetics and heredity, and their training program. (TeensHealth 1) Another common misconception of sports supplements is that they are illegal, like consuming drugs, in reality theyÃ¢ â¬â¢re not; they are just banned in some organizations such as the Olympics and others more. (The 1) Other than steroids being illegal in the US, ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a possibility of another type of sports supplement of getting banned or in others words, illegal.DMMA, also known as dimethylamylamine, a stimulant that Department of Health has categorized to be in the same category such as heroin, cocaine and crystal methamphetamine has been banned in many countries like Canada, New Zealand and several European countries due to two possible deaths in the US and is thought to cause high blood pressure, cardiovascular problems including shortness of breath and possible heart failures like heart attacks. (Sports 1) Sports supplements have lots of side effects thatÃ¢â¬â¢s one other common misconception.But really, there only a couple of supplements that have a couple of side effects like ephedra, caffeine, carnitine, and creatine do to the human body. (Sport 2) Ephedra, named after contain ing ephedra alkaloids, a dietitary supplement. The use of ephedra is for weight loss and with the goal of enhancing their performance, increasing energy. Due to the extremely side effects of this supplement, FDA have banned it for a while now on the sale of high dose ephedrine, but the doses of 10 mg or less are legal.The side effects of this supplement are headaches, rapid heart rates, increased blood pressure, insomnia, strokes, heart attacks, and death. (Sport 2) Commonly found in sodas, coffee,and energy drinks, caffeine, which provides energy and burns fat. When taken caffeine, it attacks the in the centeral nervous system, increases the awareness, and the perception of less effort used. The side effects of caffeine are increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and insomnia.In addition, a person whoÃ¢â¬â¢s constantly consuming caffeine in their diet can lead into headaches. (Sport 2) Needed in the body for the transportation of fatty acids to mitochondria to be used for energy, carnitine. Thought that it decreases muscle pain, increases endurance, promotes weight loss, and improves cardiac function. (Sport 1) Bieng one of the most popular sport supplements, creatine, is used as a form of phosphocreatine by the body to gain muscle energy.Once used, creatine increase strength, endurance, and muscle gain. While creatine may help out on athletics, it can also help you gain weight, causing a huge impact for athletes. (Sport 2) Lastly, Ã¢â¬Å"If I take sports supplements, I well just gain weight and get fatÃ¢â¬ . Most of the people that say that are wrong in some way and right at the same time. Even though most of the sports supplements have enough proteins to complete a serving of meal a day, people need to know how to balance their meals while using sport supplements.Especially when using whey protein and creatine, the user can easily gain a couple pounds if not more than expected within a few weeks if not managed his or her diet carefully. Because many of professional athletes use sports supplements on a regular basis, they have managed to control their own diet, but some can eat more than a normal person is expected to due to the intense hardcore workouts that they do.But some just hire dietetics, (The 1) a person practical application of diet in relation to health and disease. (Dietetics 1) In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, many people do not understand sports supplements and the benefits they can bring to the athlete who is serious about increasing their level of performance for his or her sport. Most supplements have little or no side effects, and can seriously help and improve the athletes ability at his or her own sport.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
While there are many legal factors to consider as XYZ Construction (XYZ) transforms from a private to a publicly owned company and expands operations globally, this paper will focus on the employment and labor laws, along with legal considerations that influence company operations. It is important to keep in mind that XYZ uses a mix of manning methodologies throughout the company; a full time staff as the core of the company, while maximizing the use of contracted labor in the execution of projects. Employment Law Employment law is a broad category of law that encompasses all areas regarding employee/employer relationships except for the negotiation process and collective bargaining, which is covered by the narrower focused category of labor law. Employment laws consist of thousands of federal and state statutes, regulations, and judicial decisions that are designed to govern the rights and duties of employers and workers. The US Department of Labor (USDOL) reports that there are 180 federal laws alone managed by 28 different agencies within the department. (United States Department of Labor [USDOL], 2014) Employment laws are focused on providing a safe and fair work place for employees and employers, alike, and have their origins in the constitution. They were founded based on public outcry against oppressive practices during the industrial revolution. The first laws founded in the 1920s were focused on fair wages, compensation for injuries, a standard work week, and on eliminating child labor. In the 1960s and 70s, statutes focused on anti-discrimination and unsafe work environments. Current issues involve employee health care, equal pay for men and women and the current debate on raising the federal minimum wage. There were also several issues addressed by the US Supreme Court of great importance to employment law including workplace discrimination and retaliation (Brill et al, 2013). The predominance of employment law disputes fall into two categories: wage and hour violations and discrimination in the workplace. Federal law provides for baseline rules regarding wage and hour standards, to include a minimum wage of $7.25 per hour and 40 hours as the standard work week. Many states have passed laws that establish a higher minimum wage, which is within their constitutional right. In these situations, XYZ is compelled to pay the higher minimum wage of that state. There is an emerging effort across the United States to raise the federal minimum wage to $9.50 per hour. In someÃ cases, this will place the federal wage higher than some states, meaning XYZ would have to pay the federal wage as it would trump the state legislation. It is prudent for XYZ to negotiate appropriate compensation on multiyear contracts as this new legislation works through the process. The standard work week, on the other hand, is prevalent across the United States and any worker that exceeds this threshold is entitled to overtime pay compensation. These rules exist to control the work environment for employees and mandates that time and a half be paid on every hour exceeding 40 within a given work week. The law also stipulates that XYZ will maintain basic payroll records and post notices to the workers regarding changes in the work environment. As XYZ experiences delays within projects, the pressure to push the work crews to make up these delays grows. While working overtime to meet customer requirements and project timelines are acceptable, supervisors must ensure adherence to the various employment laws; not doing so could lead to unfair labor practice disputes and costly legal battles (Brill et al, 2013). Another area that is a basis of employment law disputes is discrimination in the workplace. Prohibiting discrimination based on ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender, age, or disability was established with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and refined with subsequent legislation throughout the years. The Supreme Court handed down two significant decisions in 2013 that clarify evidentiary standards for discrimination claims, both are viewed as beneficial to the employer. First, the courts ruled that retaliation with discrimination as a motivating factor was not sufficient. The plaintiff must prove that discrimination was the basis for the retaliation, making the burden of proof much greater (Brill et al, 2013). Second, the courts clarified the definition of a supervisor under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. They ruled that the title of Ã¢â¬Å"supervisorÃ¢â¬ is limited to those who have authority to take a tangible employment action, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"a significant change in employment status, such as hiring, firing, failing to promote, reassignment with significantly different responsibilities, or a decision causing a significant change in benefits.Ã¢â¬ (Brill et al, 2013, p.4). Having the authority to direct daily work was not sufficient to link the supervisor to the company in regard to damages or actions tied to a law suit or dispute. However, the company is still liable for discriminatory actions of non-supervisory employees,Ã especially if it was notified and failed to take action to stop the behavior. This is significant considering that the majority of XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s work force is contracted labor. As such it is imperative that XYZ maintain viable and proactive policies focused on preventing workplace discrimination and include a review of these policies prior to initiating any employment agreement. Labor Law Conducting business in a union environment provides for another layer of complexity to company operations. XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership must be aware of and understand the basics of labor law and the collective agreements negotiated with the unions representing the workforce. Failure to operate within the parameters of the agreement will result in an unfair labor practice dispute, which affects the profit margins of the shareholders. Labor law, also governed by federal law, state law and judicial decisions, provides statutes that mediate the relationship between workers, employers, unions, and the government with the goal of equalizing the bargaining power between employers and employee (Legal Information Institute [LII], 2014). Collective labor laws focus on the rights of employees to unionize, collectively bargain, arbitrate, and strike, while individual labor law focuses on employment contracts between employers and employees (Caraway, 2009). Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees, typically represented by a union, to determine the conditions of employment and results in a collective agreement. The main body of law governing collective bargaining is the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), which was passed in 1935 (Ã¢â¬Å"Executive ConceptsÃ¢â¬ , 2011). It explicitly grants employees the right to collectively bargain and join trade unions. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is the entity that hears disputes between employers and employees that falls under the purview of the NLRA. The General Council, established by the NLRA, independently investigates and prosecutes cases against violators of the act before the NLRB (LII, 2014). Another aspect of labor law is the act of arbitration, a method of dispute resolution, which is commonly used as an alternative to litigation. A third party arbiter is designated and has binding decision authority for the dispute. While the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) is not applicable to employment contracts, the Uniform Arbitration Act of 1956 wasÃ adopted by 49 states making arbitration enforceable under state and federal law (LII, 2014). There were two key decisions rendered by the Supreme Court that impact labor law, specifically arbitration clauses and class action waivers in contracts (Brill et al, 2013). The Court held that the FAA directive to arbitrate and the arbitration clauses written into employment contracts take precedence over federal requirements to prosecute disputes through the courts. Additionally, this decision strengthens the ability to enforce class waivers written into contracts. While this appears detrimental to employers, the Court balanced this decision with language further defining the rules surrounding class waivers. The court ruled that a class dispute (one brought by more than one plaintiff) can be settled if the primary plaintiff reaches settlement (Brill et al, 2013). In essence, if an XYZ employee files a dispute that is then applied to a class of employees, but a settlement is reached with the initial plaintiff, then the class action is terminated. Effectively, the Supreme Court ruling strengthens the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s position in regard to employment contracts and protects the company from overzealous claims. As such, arbitration agreements written into XYZ employment contracts should be carefully worded in order to take full advantage of the CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. Laws specific to the construction industry Several Department of Labor agencies administer programs that are specifically related to the construction industry. Specifically, the Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA), the Wage and Hour Division, and the Office of Federal Contract Compliance all have specified areas of emphasis that regulate XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s primary line of business. OSHA administers all the occupational safety and health standards for the industry. Given the risk to employees across XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s work sites, OSHA regulations are critical to maintain and pose a significant element of cost to the company. While it is prudent to conduct cost-benefit analysis on enacting safety and health policies, sacrificing employee welfare for the bottom line is a dangerous endeavor and can result in unfair labor practices or criminal charges in the extreme. As XYZ competes and wins government construction contracts, there are several statutes that dictate certain conditions for doing business with the federal government that are administered by the USDOL Wage and HourÃ Division and the Office of Federal Contract Compliance. The Davis-Bacon Act requires that companies pay the prevailing wages and benefits of the region. Wage rates and other labor standards for employees are set by the McNamara-O-Hara Service Contract Act. The Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act requires materials and supply contractors to pay minimum wages and meet other labor standards. Executive Order 11246 requires equal employment opportunity by all construction contractor firms. Lastly, the Copeland ActÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-kickback section precludes any persuasion of an employee to sacrifice any part of their required compensation (USDOL, 2014). These dictated standards all affect the cost of projects and, if not accounted for in the bid and estimation process, will detrimentally impact the profit margins of the company as federal construction contracts are executed. Legal Considerations As XYZ begins the global expansion, it is important to realize that US labor laws are not binding in other countries in regard to foreign workers; the host country laws are in play (Ã¢â¬Å"Executive ConceptsÃ¢â¬ , 2011, p.938). However, Congress expressly extended three US labor laws to expatriates working abroad for US firms. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), and Title VII all extend extraterritorially (Nie, 2012). While XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s staff is well versed in US employment and labor law, foreign labor law is country dependent and it is prudent to conduct targeted research on the specific countryÃ¢â¬â¢s legal environment considered for expansion. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has drafted 182 conventions and 190 recommendations in their effort to standardize labor practices globally. Enforcement of these efforts is a country responsibility, and as such, there are still large gaps in adoption and application of the various standards (Ã¢â¬Å"Executive ConceptsÃ¢â¬ , 2011). While it is enticing to reduce expenses by sacrificing some of the more costly US labor law practices while abroad, this practice could damage the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sterling reputation negatively affecting all future business ventures. As countries in Asia make the transition to democratic states, the door has been opened for improvements in collective and individual labor law, resulting in the creation of unions and the strengthening of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. However, unions in developing counties depend upon governmentÃ support and, as such, are politically focused keeping the gap between internationally acceptable collective labor practices and reality relatively large (Caraway, 2009). Across Asia, individual labor rights are in a better position. There is a direct correlation between the wealth of a country and the enforced rights of its workers (Caraway, 2009). The most notable impact of this situation is the prevailing wage in each country and the impact on XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position on projects. Using the field support offices at the forward locations to gather this information is crucial to accurate project estimation and contract bidding. As the company transitions from privately owned to publicly held, there are considerations to keep in mind. First, corporate governance will adjust to account for a larger base of stockholders. There is risk that the focus of the company will also shift to a more stockholder centric view, discounting the requirements of the stakeholders (the employees) (Ecchia et al, 2012). This has the potential to lead to the creation of unfair labor practices as priority shifts from maintaining collective agreements to maintaining larger profit margins for the stockholders. Second, shareholders with large equities could pressure the company to offload portions of the workforce or reduce the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits in order to improve profitability (Ecchia et al, 2012). As the union leadership monitors corporate business practices, this could lead to a revolt in the workforce and create an environment ripe for a strike thereby shutting down operations until resolved. Any financial gains made by the reduction would be lost to stagnated operations, and as such should be managed carefully. Conclusion Conducting business in the 21st Century is comparable to traversing the proverbial minefield. Legal missteps can cause insurmountable fines and legal fees as a company struggles to maintain good business practices. Understanding employment and labor law is paramount to maintaining a strong and viable company through transformation and expansion that produces profits for its shareholders. References Banks, K. (2011). Trade, Labor and International Governance: An Inquiry into the Potential Effectiveness of the New International Labor Law. Berkeley Journal Of Employment & Labor Law, 32(1), 45-142. Business Source Complete, Accession Number: 67233021 Barnum, Darold T. (1971) From Private to Public Relations in Urban Transit. Industrial & Labor Relations Review. 25(1), 95-115. Business Source Complete, Accession Number: 4459252. Brill, Edward A., Fant, Laura M., and Baddish, Noa M. (2013) U.S. Supreme Court Wrap-Up: Hot Topics in Labor and Employment Law. Employee Relations Law Journal. 39(3), 3-8. Business Source Complete, Accession Numbe:r 91640070 Caraway, Tara L. (2009). Labor Rights in East Asia: Progress or Regress?. Journal of East Asian Studies, 9(2), 153-186. ProQuest Research Library, Accession Number: 43381256 Ecchia, Giulio, Gelter, Martin, and Pasotti, Piero. (2012) Corporate Governance, Corporate and Employment Law, and the Costs of Expropriation. Review of Law & Economics. 8(2), 457-486. DOI: 10.1515/1555-5879.1357 Katten, Betsy. (2013) U.S. Supreme Court to Address Labor and Employment Matters in 2013-2014 Term. Employee Relations Law Journal. 39(3), 48-51. Business Source Complete, Accession Number: 91640075 Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/employment Nie, Carrie. (2012). Extraterritorial Application of U.S. Employment Laws: Clearing the Murky Conflicting Foreign Laws Defense. International Lawyer, 46(4), 1027-1043, OmniFile, Accession Number: 90233860 Northcentral University (2011). SKS 7000-Executive Concepts in Business Strategy. Custom edition. Retrieved from: http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/ United States Department of Labor. (2014) Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/opa/aboutdol/lawsprog.htm
Friday, November 8, 2019
10 Writing Tips for a Winning Web Site 10 Writing Tips for a Winning Web Site 10 Writing Tips for a Winning Web Site By Mark Nichol Some time ago, I posted some general guidelines for writing for an online audience. Here are some specific time-tested tips for attracting and keeping site visitors with clean, clear writing: 1. Keyword Top Labels Use keywords for window titles and taglines, and keep them sharp and succinct. These labels are for helping Internet users get to your site because they typed them into a search engine and your site came up in the results, not for wowing visitors when they get there (assuming they get there, because youÃ¢â¬â¢re not using keywords to help searchers). 2. Keyword Display Copy Employ keywords, not clever words, to begin headings, headlines, and link names, and keep the display copy brief. Most Web site visitors scan just the first one or two words of display copy. In Ã¢â¬Å"Where to Go on Vacation This Summer,Ã¢â¬ the first keyword appears as the fifth word of seven. (Go isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a keyword, because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t yet know what kind of going is involved.) Ã¢â¬Å"Summer-Vacation Destinations,Ã¢â¬ by contrast, gives you three keywords out of three, with the two most important ones in first and second place. This approach is especially advantageous for a commerce site, but your personal blog shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any different (assuming you want to attract new site visitors, not just impress current ones). 3. Avoid All Capital Letters DonÃ¢â¬â¢t use all capital letters, even in display copy. All-cap text is harder to scan and to read. Do, however, use initial caps for headings and headlines. 4. Avoid Exclamation Points Unless your site is all about bringing the funny or attempting to do so donÃ¢â¬â¢t use exclamation points. (Another exception: if all the iÃ¢â¬â¢s are dotted with circles or hearts.) 5. Omit Extraneous Spaces or Punctuation All-cap initials and acronyms, of course, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t separate letters with word spaces or with periods. Omit apostrophes when attaching a plural s to such abbreviations. 6. Avoid Superfluous Headings Eschew headings and headlines like Ã¢â¬Å"FeaturesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"LinksÃ¢â¬ for self-evident sections. 7. Make Navigation and Display Easy on the Eyes Make it easy to find other pages and archived content, and avoid making the home page and other pages busy in general. 8. Keyword Navigation Never use Ã¢â¬Å"Click hereÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"MoreÃ¢â¬ (by itself) or Ã¢â¬Å"Next pageÃ¢â¬ for a link name. Use keywords: Ã¢â¬Å"Archive,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"More Top 10 Lists,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ski Trip, Day 2.Ã¢â¬ 9. Limit Font and Background Styles Avoid multiple fonts, font sizes, font colors, and background colors. Use one font for display copy and another for running text. Limit italics to emphasis of words and short phrases. Employ boldface generously in display copy but sparingly in running text. 10. Write for First-Time Visitors If you want to attract a general readership, write for a general readership. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t dumb down, but do explain obscure terminology and do spell acronyms out. (You could provide a glossary, but briefly explaining, or spelling out, an unfamiliar term neednÃ¢â¬â¢t be distracting to either lay readers or experts.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Business Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Passed vs Past7 Tips for Writing a Film ReviewHow Do You Fare?
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
F#ck Content Marketing Focus on Content Experience With Randy Frisch Marketers are in the business of creating content. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re modern-day publishers. However, up to 70% of content that they create goes unused. Today, my guest is Randy Frisch, author of the new book, F#ck Content Marketing: Focus on Content Experience to Drive Demand, Revenue, Relationships. Also, heÃ¢â¬â¢s the co-founder, president, and CMO of Uberflip. He identifies how to break bad content marketing habits and adapt personalization to marketing. Content is at the core of marketing strategies; Uberflip empowers marketers to take control of created content assets and mesh them into their marketing efforts RandyÃ¢â¬â¢s book is not meant to throw shade at content marketers, but capture his passion and take on the Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ status of the content marketing industry What is unused content? Content thatÃ¢â¬â¢s created and posted, but never leveraged on a day-to-day basis in marketing Definition of content marketing to create content to attract a clearly defined audience and drive profitable customer action is too narrowly focused Content marketers need to start putting the right content in front of the right people for that encounter to be a great experience Real-life examples of what content marketers are doing right and wrong; tell a story that connects with customers Content marketers feel pressured to produce content, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not the only ones responsible for customer experience Tactics and tools for the personalization of content and marketing at scale Content Experience Framework: Centralize, organize, personalize, distribute, and generate resultsEvolution of Content: People who want to go beyond content creation and think more strategically by teaming up with colleagues Links: Randy Frisch F#ck Content Marketing by Randy Frisch on Amazon F#ck Content Marketing- Focus on the Content Experience (Blog Post) Uberflip AMP123: Why Every Content Marketer Should Think Like a Publisher Content Marketing World Robert Rose Joe Pulizzi Content Marketing Institute Spotify Netflix Snowflake Sigstr Terminus Eloqua Write a review on iTunes and send a screenshot of it to receive a cool swag bag! If you liked todayÃ¢â¬â¢s show, please subscribe on iTunes to The Actionable Content Marketing Podcast! The podcast is also available on SoundCloud, Stitcher, and Google Play. Quotes by Randy Frisch: Ã¢â¬Å"We would figure out how to create all this content and weÃ¢â¬â¢d end up with a different problem, which was, what would we do with all that content?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Whether we donÃ¢â¬â¢t get to it or weÃ¢â¬â¢re expecting too muchwe end up in this position where we are letting content sit unused.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about moving on to that next step: Ã¢â¬ËHow do we put the right content in front of the right people so that the encounter they have with our content is a great experienceÃ¢â¬â¢?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When we deliver a personalized experience, we lead to these better outcomes. IÃ¢â¬â¢m willing to guarantee youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see higher engagement.Ã¢â¬
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Genetically Modified Organisms, U.S. and E.U. Trade Dispute - Research Paper Example , the EU argued that it has acted in good faith, stating that it has acted through the precautionary principle, in order to protect the interests of those who produced the non-GMO products for its markets. Despite this argument, the WTO ruled against the EU stating that it would have been necessary for the latter to provide credible scientific evidence concerning the potential harm of GMO before taking action against the authorization of American GMO into its markets (Viju, Yeung and Kerr 1207). As a response, the European Union has made amendments to its regulatory framework to ensure that its member states are given the power to ban any GMO products within their territories. However, there has been general agreement within the member states that the bans might not be effective in the current situation, with some arguing that the new proposed regulations might not be in line with the rules of the WTO. The complex nature of the EUÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making process has been blamed for the resulting trade dispute between the United States and the European Union. The fact that this dispute took place was due to the fact that the European Union is still extremely cautious concerning the importation of GMO into its territory. Most of the concern from the EU is based on the belief that some of the GMO that are imported, especially from the United States, may not be fit for human consumption and if consumed may end up having long term detrimental effects on the health of those who consume it. This is the reason why the EU chose to take on the precautionary principle, where it prevented any GMO products from the United States from entering any of the markets within its territory (Karlsson 51). During the case brought before the WTO, the argument that the EU was taking illegal action... This essay stresses that some political analysts have suggested that the best way to resolve this dispute would be for the United States to take the lead through the easing of restrictions against European beef products so that the EU can also see it fit to reciprocate in kind. In addition, there has been the suggestion that the creation of a free trade zone between the United States and the EU would create an avenue where there would be a reduction of trade disputes and an increase in cooperation between them. The fact that he enjoys the good will of the European public is likely to work in his favor not only in matters concerning the ending of the beef import stand off, but also those of the creation of the free trade zone. A free trade zone would be the ideal guarantee for the ending of most, if not all the disputes that involve these two entities. This report makes a conclusion that the existence of restrictions against American beef products in the European Union have also been created because of the need to ensure that these products are not in any way detrimental to the environment. The environmental impact of GMO products are yet to be fully analyzed and it is high time that research concerning it be conducted to ensure that better ways of managing these products are developed. The United States, on the other hand, has to adopt some of the concern about GMO effect on health and environment because very little research has been conducted on the subject. Through this adoption, there will be a better understanding of the reasons behind the European ban on some of its GMO products, and this will enable them to reach an amicable solution to their disputes.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Employability in a Knowledge - Essay Example Now a days education is not only looked upon a very fulfilling profession but has also become very competitive and lucrative. Given my abilities and interest areas, I feel that I possess all the pre requisites that are considered essential to succeed in this line. I have always been passionate about teaching and interacting with children comes naturally to me. Through this noble profession I will not be making a living but also doing something for the society as a whole. In my own small way I will be responsible for shaping the future of the nation. This thought is one of the major driving forces for my passion towards teaching. Also I , as an individual, has this thirst for continuous learning and development thereby broadening my horizon and enhancing my knowledge. I feel that this profession would fulfill this need of mine as one of the major demands of teaching as a profession is to continuously upgrade your knowledge and to be in synch with the changes and developments happening at around you. There is a need to constantly keep yourself updated and enhance your skills and knowledge if you have to succeed in the line of education. In order to succeed in a career of ones choice is it absolutely critical to understand how one can stay employable irrespective of the economic scenario and labor market conditions. ... a profession , one only needs to have the requisite qualification and skills that are required to fulfill the demands and the requirements of the concerned job. This definition is incomplete because it does not take into consideration the relationship between employability and the prevalent economic scenario. The economic situation of any country tends to have a significant impact on the labor markets thereby affecting the employability of people. It is a true case of demand and supply. During times of labor shortages, even the unemployed will be able to get decent jobs and when there are shortages of jobs, the highly employable people also might find themselves without any job. Secondly employability of an individual does not only depend on his qualifications but also how competent he is as compared with others who are applying for similar positions.These two important dimensions are not acknowledged in the definition provided by Hillage and Pollard. Drawing from the above argument the definition of employability given by Brown et al is more comprehensive and takes into account all factors that have a significant impact on this concept of as well as highlighting those aspects which graduates must consider to ensure the success of their professional careers. Firstly according to Brown at al employability is not only dependent on individual characteristics rather it possesses two dimensions namely absolute and relative. Therefore employability among graduates not only is a function of skills and qualifications but also depends on the capability of an individual to find and maintain different kinds of employments.The second important concept of employability as defined by Philips Brown is with respect to positional competition. He is of the opinion that employability
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Factors that may impact the demand for products by customers - Essay Example Services and products that a business gives to the market may have an impact on the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand for the Services or products. For instance, a business may be selling hot dogs; in contrast, a corresponding business may be selling hot dog rolls. If the cost of the hot dog rolls augments, it may make the demand for hot dogs to diminish. Consequently, the demand curve moves to the left, and value for hot dogs would be forced to augment.Customers may choose alternate services and products in place of what a personÃ¢â¬â¢s business provides. These alternative products and services function as opposition to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s business. For example, if a business sells coffee, the alternative for the product may be tea. If the cost of tea augments, a business may observe an increase in the number of customers who want to buy coffee. Consequently, the demand curve will move to the right, and costs for the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ coffee may decrease. As indicated above, a substitute refe rs to a commodity that may be utilized in position of another commodity. To simplify the above example, if the cost of coffee increases then the consequence will be an increased demand for tea, and if the cost of tea increases then the result will be an increase in the demand of coffee. In contrast, compliments refer to commodities that may be utilized together, for example, sugar and tea. In case there is an increase in the cost of tea, the demand for tea diminishes, and consequently, the demand of sugar also decreases.... In case there is an increase in the cost of tea, the demand for tea diminishes, and consequently, the demand of sugar also decreases. Customer Preference CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ preference and tastes may vary depending on the details they get from family and friends, form of advertisements they come across, or the season. Varying preferences and tastes may have a tremendous impact on demand for various commodities. The degree at which a client needs a product may have an impact on the demand of the product. In addition, persuasive advertisements are developed to cause a variation in preference and tastes and thereby causes and increase in demand of a commodity. The more a customer prefers a commodity, the larger their demand for the commodity. In contrast, if the customer does not have a preference for a specified commodity, the customer will decrease the demand for the commodity (Sullivan & Sheffrin 2003, p. 79). For instance, a person suffering from diabetes will have minimal or no deman d for commodities that contain sugar. Income of Customers The incomes and salaries of buyers highlight the commodities that they are able to buy. When the incomes and salaries of customers augment the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for services and products also increases. If a customer takes another position that has a low salary or becomes unemployed the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for commodities lessens. In contrast, when the salary and income of a customer increases, the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to buy goods and services escalates (Sullivan & Sheffrin 2003, p. 79). This causes an increase in demand. Competition Rivals are always attempting to occupy the larger part of the market, maybe by developing better or new
Monday, October 28, 2019
Physical Surveillance Essay The act of surveillance is designed to observe individuals, areas or objects that are of particular interest to an investigator in order to collect information and evidence that may be associated with a suspect and his related criminal activities. Physical surveillance is a method of examination of a particular area that is linked to a crime scene or a suspect. This may include inspecting the area when the crime took place, as well as the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s and suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s homes, vehicles and paraphernalia. Examination will cover both the conditions of the places and items, as well as the position of the places and items in the particular areas. Physical surveillance is important in a crime scene investigation because it provides a way for the investigator to reconstruct the scene and make inferences on what actually happened during the incident (Gardner, 2005). Any area that is associated with a crime is identified as soon as a crime has been established or reported. In addition, these particular areas are protected from any type of disruption by putting a crime scene tape along the perimeter of the area concerned. It has been reported that the most complicate part of an investigation is the establishment and protection of the boundaries of a crime scene because the signs related to a scene are often elusive to an investigator. Other investigators employ search dogs to facilitate the establishment and tracking of a crime scene. Photography is commonly employed in the physical surveillance of a crime scene. This visual documentation of an area is very helpful to an investigator because it physically records the features of the area before any other activity is performed to the crime scene. Physical surveillance also involves marking all potential evidences to the crime. In addition to photographs, sketches of the crime scene are also important in physical surveillance of a specific area. Sketches are generally considered as essential information of crime scenes because these serve as detailed notes of the investigation, although the diagrammatic representation is of less quality than a simple photograph. Sketches provide measurements of the crime scene, including distances between two points of interest that are located within the area under investigation. An investigator often starts with a rough sketch and eventually moves on to a final sketch that is drawn to scale. These sketches are commonly employed as models during court hearings and trials because these provide the floor-plan of an area of interest, the elevation of the area and its details and other critical dimensions that may be helpful in the analysis of a crime scene. Physical surveillance serves more purposes in a crime scene investigation than a technical surveillance because it provides the investigator with sufficient evidence that may be important in linking a specific suspect to a particular crime. Technical surveillance does not provide the specific details that physical surveillance provides because it does not provide any associative details that are critical to an investigation. In addition, physical surveillance provides a view of the crime scene through an observerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and this usually provides a neutral view of the area, removing any biases and discrimination of certain items and areas. Physical surveillance also provides a better understanding of a crime incident through the note-taking that is performed on the area, including any traces of struggle or bullet holes. It also assists the investigator in reconstructing the sequence of events that are related to the crime, including the initial moments of what was said, done or executed by the victim and the suspect.
Friday, October 25, 2019
The Story Behind the Nazi Gold Nazi Gold: Hard currency looted from treasuries of countries occupied by the Axis powers during World War II. Ingots consisting of gold melted down from the teeth of murder victims and weddings bands and jewelry. About two thirds of an estimated $660 million ($7.8 billion in today's dollars) in stolen Nazi gold passed through Switzerland during the war. And like any sharp businessmen with hot goods, the Swiss disposed of much of their gold quickly - through Portugal mainly, but also to Sweden, Spain, and other central banks (Hirsh 48). Probably no more that $140 million remains unaccounted for, and a good portion of that was probably sold onward as well. But what remains of the known Nazi hoard (none of which has been returned to the Jewish community) is worth no more than about $65 million according to the Brussels-based Tripartite Gold Commission, set up after World War II to return stolen gold to national treasuries. Recently the Clinton administration created a commission to sear ch for any Nazi funds that might have ended up in U.S. Federal Reserve vaults. "We have to be willing not only to focus the spotlight on Switzerland," says Under Secretary of Commerce Stuart Eizenstat. "We have to be willing to follow the trail of assets into our own treasury" (qtd. in Hirsh 47). This trail though, suggests that there is no huge stash of Nazi gold in Switzerland. The loot has scattered worldwide through numerous transactions and is probably irretrievable. Also, because so many banks were involved, the amount of gold left in Switzerland is probably negligible, contrary to what investigators have until now presumed. At this point the cost or returning the Nazi Gold to its rightful owners is not worth the trouble and inconvenience it would create. Documents released in recent months have made it clear that Swiss banks traded in looted Nazi-gold, and that Swiss businesses made a fortune selling arms to the Nazis. In a historical report published around May 9,1997, it was said that there was no evidence that the Swiss or other neutral countries knew that gold from the central banks had been smelted together with gold fillings, wedding bands, and other jewelry stolen from Holocaust victims (Sanger). But, Eizenstat found "incontrovertible evidence" that Swiss bankers knew they were trading in gold that Germany had looted from the treasuries of states it occupied, and also a handwritten ledger sheet from the Reichsbank showed a deposit of 29,996 grams of "dental gold" into a Swiss account (A harsh.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Certain advantages of living in a large city City life and rural life are absolutely the different sides of the coin, so choosing whether to live in a big city or a small town requires serious consideration. Each city has its unique aspects and qualities that distinguish itself from others. Each person has his or her own opinion about where to live based on his or her life style. However, according to me, living in a large city has certain advantages over living in a small town: convenient public transportation, greater entertainment facility and higher employment. To begin with, a metropolitan city has its obvious advantage when it comes to the public transportation. It is wildly known that a big city has extremely convenient transportation which can be best illustrated by the example of New York, where the subway runs twenty-four hours for seven days a week and there are tremendous cabs and buses everywhere. Not to mention that the transport system is always fast, safe, clean and a ffordable. For the poor, who can only rely on the public transportation, such a convenient and efficient system makes it much easier for them to seek work opportunities far from their living houses and also gives them greater access to education, healthcare and recreation. In addition to public transportation, what makes people pour into big city is its wonderful entertainment facility. Many small towns often offer less social amenities than expected due to its demographic and geographic factors. Whereas, countless facilities of entertainment and cultural activities such as cinemas, theatres, concerts, museums can be found in a large city like Shanghai with the least effort and time. Such facilities not only offer people a place where they can be relaxed after a weekÃ¢â¬â¢s hard work, but also can nurture the soul and cultivate the mind to some extent, which is particularly beneficial to children who are willing to visit some historical museums during their spare time. Finally, higher employment is another reason why people prefer urban areas. On the one hand, there are a lot of headquarters for large companies in major cities as well as large factories, so the average employed person is a step higher on the ladder than they will be in smaller cities. And it is likely that people will find something that specifically matches their skills. For instance, a friend of mine who majors in software engineering can easily find a related job in big cities while he may find the different line of work if he is in rural areas. On the otherÃ hand, statistics show that people in large cities are more likely to have a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree or better, which contributes to the high employment and better payment. Taken all of the above reasons into consideration, small towns cannot be compared with big cities in public transportation, entertainment facilities and job opportunities. Although, small towns are more tranquil and peaceful, if a person pursues a fast -pace and colorful life, major cities are his or her best choice.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
1. Ã¢â¬Å"Beetroot juice Ã¢â¬Ëcan beat blood pressureÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ Nutraceuticals International 13. 2 (Feb 2008). Summary/Critique Medications for hypertension can amount to a lot of money each year. This is the reason why many experts are trying to look at cheaper alternatives in producing medicines that could alleviate the upsurge of this dreaded disease. Cheaper medicines can come in a form of herbal remedies. In this report that appeared in a magazine Nurtaceuticals International (Feb.2008), it has been revealed that British researchers at Barts and The London School of Medicine found a new way of vitally reducing the blood pressure of hypertension patients. By taking 500ml of beetroot juice each, they might have a chance of being cured of their hypertension. The group of researchers, led by Amrita Ahluwalia and Ben Benjamin, identified that it is the Ã¢â¬Å"ingestion of dietary nitrate contained within beetroot juiceÃ¢â¬ that does the trick. The effect can also be seen when people are eating green, leafy vegetables that ultimately results in decreased blood pressure. Because of the antioxidant vitamin content of vegetable-rich diet people can be protected against heart disease. This article is very informative because readers can learn the importance of having good diet can help everyone have a healthier life. Also, this article could encourage more experts in trying to find alternative ways of helping people with hypertension. Full Text Article: Ã¢â¬Å"Beetroot juice Ã¢â¬Ëcan beat blood pressureÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ Nutraceuticals International 13. 2 (Feb 2008). Researchers at Barts and The London School of Medicine in the UK have discovered that drinking just 500ml of beetroot juice a day can significantly reduce blood pressure. The study, published on-line on February 5 in the American Heart AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s journal Hypertension, could have major implications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Lead by Amrita Ahluwalia, professor at the William Harvey Research Institute at Barts and The London School of Medicine, and Ben Benjamin, professor at Peninsula Medical School, USA, the research reveals that it is the ingestion of dietary nitrate contained within beetroot juice Ã¢â¬â and similarly in green, leafy vegetables Ã¢â¬â which results ultimately in decreased blood pressure. Previously, the protective effects of vegetable-rich diets had been attributed to their antioxidant vitamin content. Effective one hour post ingestion Prof Ahluwalia and her team found that, in healthy volunteers, blood pressure was reduced within just one hour of ingesting beetroot juice, with a peak drop occurring three-four hours after ingestion. Some degree of reduction continued to be observed until up to 24 hours after consumption. Researchers showed that the decrease in blood pressure was due to the chemical formation of nitrite from the dietary nitrate in the juice. The nitrate in the juice is converted in saliva by bacteria on the tongue into nitrite. This nitrite-containing saliva is swallowed and, in the acidic environment of the stomach is either converted into nitric oxide or re-enters the circulation as nitrite. The peak time of reduction in blood pressure correlated with the appearance and peak levels of nitrite in the circulation, an effect that was absent in a second group of volunteers who refrained from swallowing their saliva during, and three hours following, beetroot ingestion. More than 25% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s adult population are hypertensive, and it has been estimated that this figure will increase to 29% by 2025. In addition, hypertension causes around 50% of coronary heart disease, and approximately 75% of strokes. In demonstrating that nitrate is likely to underlie the cardio-protective effect of a vegetable-rich diet, the research of Prof Ahluwalia and her colleagues highlights the potential of a natural, low cost approach for the treatment of cardiovascular disease Ã¢â¬â a condition that kills over 110,000 people in England alone every year. Prof Ahluwalia concluded: Ã¢â¬Å"our research suggests that drinking beetroot juice, or consuming other nitrate-rich vegetables, might be a simple way to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system, and might also be an additional approach that one could take in the modern day battle against rising blood pressure. Ã¢â¬ 2. Zoler, Mitchel L. Ã¢â¬Å"Hypertension doubles female sexual dysfunction prevalence. Ã¢â¬ Family Practice News 36. 20 (Oct 15, 2006): 14. Summary Critique: We only know that hypertension affects the circulatory system of the human body. However, in this article by Mitchel Zoler (2006), it has been found that hypertensive women have double the risk of having sexual dysfunction than women with normal blood pressure. This proposition came after scientists have conducted a study of 417 women. As Dr. Michael Doumas reported in the annual meeting of the American Society of Hypertension, Ã¢â¬Å"women with controlled hypertension had a significantly lower prevalence of sexual dysfunction than did women whose hypertension failed to reach goal levels during treatmentÃ¢â¬ (Zoler, 2006). In this particular study, all women were tasked to complete a Ã¢â¬Å"19-question form that has been validated as a way to evaluate sexual functionÃ¢â¬ . The questions dealt with several domains of female sexual function: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. The survey found out that among the women with hypertension, Ã¢â¬Å"42% had scores indicating sexual dysfunctionÃ¢â¬ , which is far in statistically significant when compared with Ã¢â¬Å"19% among the normotensivesÃ¢â¬ . Looking on how the researchers arrived at this conclusion can be doubtful because they merely based it on a survey, which can be a result of many other factors other than hypertension. Yet, this observation should not be taken complacently because hypertension is a common disease in the United States and its link to reproductive dysfunction in women should be established so that doctors will know how to alleviate the worsening problem of hypertension. Full Text Article: Zoler, Mitchel L. Ã¢â¬Å"Hypertension doubles female sexual dysfunction prevalence. Ã¢â¬ Family Practice News 36. 20 (Oct 15, 2006): 14. NEW YORK Ã¢â¬â Women with hypertension were twice as likely to have sexual dysfunction as normotensive women were, in a study of 417 women. The results also showed that women with controlled hypertension had a significantly lower prevalence of sexual dysfunction than did women whose hypertension failed to reach goal levels during treatment, Dr. Michael Doumas reported at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hypertension. But a third finding was that women who were treated with antihypertensive drugs had a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction than did untreated women. Dr.Doumas speculated that this was caused by the effects of certain antihypertensive drugs, such as diuretics and [beta]-blockers. Treatment with other drug types, the angiotensin-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, appeared to reduce sexual dysfunction, he said. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to treat hypertension because of its effect on adverse cardiac outcomes. But there is a hint that we can lower blood pressure with some drugs and also have good effects on female sexual function,Ã¢â¬ said Dr. Doumas, a physician in the department of internal medicine at the Hospital of Alexandroupolis in Athens. The study enrolled 216 women with hypertension and 201 normotensive women. Their average age overall was about 48, and all were sexually active. The women completed a 19-question form that has been validated as a way to evaluate sexual function. The questions dealt with several domains of female sexual function: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. Among the women with hypertension, 42% had scores indicating sexual dysfunction, compared with 19% among the normotensives, which was a statistically significant difference. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with the duration of hypertension. Among women who had been hypertensive for fewer than 3 years, 16% had a score indicating sexual dysfunction; the rate rose to 33% among women with hypertension for 3-6 years and 79% among women with hypertension for more than 6 years. Age also showed a significant interaction with prevalence. Among women aged 31-40 years, the prevalence of dysfunction was 21%; the rate rose to 38% among women aged 41-50 and to 57% among women who were older than 50 years. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 48% among women treated for hypertension, compared with 33% among the untreated hypertensives, a significant difference. The average age was 48 years in both groups. But the prevalence was lower still among the hypertensive women who had their pressure controlled by treatment. With control defined as a pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with controlled hypertension was 27%, significantly less than the 51% of women with uncontrolled hypertension who had dysfunction. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not yet known how antihypertensive drugs exert differing effects on sexual function. In general, drugs that cause vasodilation appear to improve sexual dysfunction, Dr. Doumas said. 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Liver linked to deadly disease. Ã¢â¬ USA Today (Magazine) 135. 2737 (Oct 2006): 10. The liver is important in the human body because it produces many enzymes that aid the digestion of our food intake. This is why it can be alarming to have liver disorders because it can affect our system from metabolizing food. For example, in the United States, many people consume an excessive amount of protein. The metabolism of excess protein, especially animal protein, can put a strain on the liver and kidneys in fats include dairy products, vegetable oils, and red meat. In this report from USA Today, it was found that liver disorders may trigger a deadly type of hypertension. As a physician from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center named Dan Rockey informed, this type of hypertension is called portal hypertension that Ã¢â¬Å"affects the blood flow into the portal vein, which feeds blood to the liverÃ¢â¬ . This report is alarming because the short-term mortality rate of having Ã¢â¬Å"portal hypertension is about 30%Ã¢â¬ (USA Today, October 2006). Dan Rockey and his colleagues are undergoing research to open new grounds for this disease and to find Ã¢â¬Å"possible clinical approachesÃ¢â¬ . Portal hypertension can trigger bleeding and development of fluid found in the abdomen. It is important to take more research on this type of hypertension because it can possibly become an epidemic if it is not treated. Also, we can take steps in taking care of our liver by reducing alcohol intake and eating healthy food. Full Text Article: Ã¢â¬Å"Liver linked to deadly disease. Ã¢â¬ USA Today (Magazine) 135. 2737 (Oct 2006): 10. Mechanisms causing a potentially deadly type of hypertension that result from liver damage have been identified by Don Rockey, a physician at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Portal hypertension affects the blood flow into the portal vein, which feeds blood to the liver. Rockey identified the cellular activity that results in portal hypertension. He and his colleagues then took the research a step further, showing that, if the process can be interrupted, the hypertension subsides. Ã¢â¬Å"Portal hypertension is a deadly disease that complicates many forms of chronic liver injury,Ã¢â¬ he explains. Ã¢â¬Å"When this occurs, in its most severe form, the prognosis definitely becomes guarded,Ã¢â¬ often leading to the need for a liver transplant. The short-term mortality for patients with portal hypertension is about 30%. The latest research opens new ground and has implications for possible clinical approaches. Ã¢â¬Å"The end result of portal hypertension is bleeding and development of ascites [fluid in the abdomen]; so, if you could treat it early, you could prevent bleeding or the formation of ascites,Ã¢â¬ Rockey observes. Portal hypertension is similar to the widely known essential hypertensionÃ¢â¬âwhich impairs blood flow to the heart systemsÃ¢â¬âexcept it affects blood flow to the liver-related systems. The liver is an essential organ that washes the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s blood of wastes and poisons. Cirrhosis of the liver occurs when the cells are damaged. Scarring often results, reducing blood flow and raising pressure on veins. The high pressure can cause veins to burst, resulting in internal bleeding and, potentially, death. Previous studies have shown that, at the cellular level, portal hypertension results from reduced production of needed nitric oxide, which regulates expansion of the blood vessels. RockeyÃ¢â¬â¢s research identifies how the nitric oxide production breaks down due to the effects of the protein GRK2. The protein attaches to another protein called AKT, interrupting the creation of nitric oxide. 4. Zoler, Mitchel L. Ã¢â¬Å"Hypertension diagnosis often missed in children. Ã¢â¬ Family Practice News 35. 11 (June 1, 2005): 15. We might not know it but children can develop hypertension too. Since the late 1980s, the rate of pre-hypertension and hypertension among U. S. children and teenagers has continued to increase. However, according to Zoler (June 1, 2005), experts miss 85% of these cases. In this article, Dr. Charlene K. Mitchell informed that Ã¢â¬Å"the problem with diagnosing hypertension in kids is that there are too many threshold pressures for most physicians to keep straightÃ¢â¬ . The guidelines for diagnosing children with the condition are different than those for adults. The point at which children are considered to have hypertension is determined by age, gender, weight and height, and young patients usually are not diagnosed until they have higher-than-normal readings for at least three visits. American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines require that blood pressure be taken at every doctors visit, but some physicians do not then calculate whether it is too high, especially if the child is healthy otherwise. This is why Dr. Mitchell suggested the researchers should be Ã¢â¬Å"aggressiveÃ¢â¬ in finding a solution not to miss the diagnosis of hypertension in children. The impact of missing the diagnosis of hypertension in kids can be tremendous because it is a Ã¢â¬Å"killerÃ¢â¬ disease. Doctors missing to identify it could not suggest medications and this can be life-threatening for the children. More serious research should be conducted to identify what method is appropriate in determining the occurrence of hypertension in children. Full Text Article: Zoler, Mitchel L. Ã¢â¬Å"Hypertension diagnosis often missed in children. Ã¢â¬ Family Practice News 35. 11 (June 1, 2005): 15. New Orleans Ã¢â¬â A diagnosis of hypertension was missed in 85% of children with high blood pressure in a study of 287 youngsters who were examined at two university-based, pediatric clinics. The problem with diagnosing hypertension in kids is that there are too many threshold pressures for most physicians to keep straight, Charlene K. Mitchell, M. D. , said at the annual meeting of the Southern Society for Pediatric Research. Because the threshold for diagnosing hypertension varies by age, height, and gender, there are a total of 420 different diastolic and systolic pressures that determine whether a particular child has high blood pressure, said Dr. Mitchell, a pediatrician and internist at the University of Louisville (Ky. ). The total is 420 because there are 15 different age-specific threshold pressures for children aged 3-17 years, 7 different height-specific threshold pressures between the 5th and 95th height percentiles, different thresholds for girls and boys, and different thresholds for diastolic and systolic pressure. The threshold criteria for borderline hypertension would add another 120 pressure thresholds for diagnosing hypertension. Ã¢â¬Å"The numbers are chopped up too much. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s far too complex for easy management,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Mitchell said. Ã¢â¬Å"If physicians must always look on a table every time they check a blood pressure, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll continue to see underdiagnosis. Ã¢â¬ Her solution to the number surfeit is to cluster several ages with a single diagnostic pressure threshold. However, eventually she would like to have study results establish pressure thresholds for diagnosing hypertension that are empirically derived, rather than based on statistics. If the diagnostic criteria are simplified, physicians will be much more likely to identify hypertension in children much more often, Dr. Mitchell said. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to be much more aggressive about recognizing hypertension in children than we are now,Ã¢â¬ she added. Her study was designed to assess physician accuracy at identifying hypertension in children aged 3-17 years being seen for routine, well-child visits from July 31 to Aug. 15, 2003. Of the 287 children examined, 90 (31%) had hypertension by current standards, and 35 (12%) had borderline hypertension. But only 15% of those with hypertension were diagnosed by their examining physicians. The results also showed that physicians were more likely to diagnose hypertension in children with a higher body mass index (BMI). The children who were correctly diagnosed as hypertensive were, on average, in the 92nd percentile for BMI. Those who had unrecognized blood pressure elevations were, on average, in the 76th percentile for BMI. 5. Bradbury, Jane. Ã¢â¬Å"The chicken and egg in hypertensionÃ¢â¬ , The Lancet 349. 9059 (April 19, 1997), p. 1151. It is important to know where essential hypertension will trigger from because it can aid doctors to foresee the development of this dreaded disease. To wit, there is an ongoing debate of whether essential hypertension occurs when there is a perceived micro vascular abnormality or is when doctors see higher levels of blood pressure. In this article, UK clinicians found that males Ã¢â¬Å"with a familial predisposition to high blood pressure, a reduced number of capillaries and impaired microvascular dilatation precede hypertensionÃ¢â¬ . In the research conducted by Professor David Webb and his team from the University of Edinburgh, they utilized the Ã¢â¬Å"four-corners epidemiological modelÃ¢â¬ in predicting the triggering point of hypertension. Their study in 1977 determined the measure of blood pressure from 1809 married couples. In 1985, 864 of the 16Ã¢â¬â24 year-old children that came from the previous couples Ã¢â¬Å"had their blood pressure measuredÃ¢â¬ too. Then, the researchers classified Ã¢â¬Å"four groups of offspringÃ¢â¬ by Ã¢â¬Å"combinations of personal (high or low) and parental (high or low) blood pressureÃ¢â¬ . Through these extensive studies, they determined that Ã¢â¬Å"microvessel characteristics which might be responsible for increased vascular resistance in essential hypertensionÃ¢â¬ . Mostly, it is the males Ã¢â¬Å"with high blood pressure whose parents also had high blood pressure had significantly impaired dermal vasodilatation compared with the other three groupsÃ¢â¬ . Also, they researchers observed they had Ã¢â¬Å"significantly fewer capillaries in the finger during venous occlusionÃ¢â¬ . This article can be helpful in the research of determining hypertension before it develops into a full-blown disease. Full Text Article: Bradbury, Jane. Ã¢â¬Å"The chicken and egg in hypertensionÃ¢â¬ , The Lancet 349. 9059 (April 19, 1997), 1151. What comes first in essential hypertension-microvascular abnormalities or a rise in blood pressure? UK clinicians report this week that in men with a familial predisposition to high blood pressure, a reduced number of capillaries and impaired microvascular dilatation precede hypertension. Prof David Webb (University of Edinburgh, UK) and his team used the Ã¢â¬Å"four-cornersÃ¢â¬ epidemiological model to unravel cause and effect in hypertension. In 1977, blood pressure was measured in 1809 married couples. 864 16Ã¢â¬â24 year-old offspring from 603 of the families had their blood pressure measured in 1985. Four groups of offspring were defined by combinations of personal (high or low) and parental (high or low) blood pressure. Microvessel characteristics which might be responsible for increased vascular resistance in essential hypertension were measured in 1993Ã¢â¬â95 for 105 men drawn from the four populations (J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 1873Ã¢â¬â79). Men with high blood pressure whose parents also had high blood pressure had significantly impaired dermal vasodilatation compared with the other three groups. They also had significantly fewer capillaries in the finger during venous occlusion. Factors which are associated with high blood pressure in offspring whose parent had high blood pressure are more likely to be causal than those that are associated with high blood pressure in the offspring irrespective of parental blood pressure, write the authors. The results suggest that defective angiogenesis may be an etiological component of hypertension, either environmental or genetic, and are consistent with the higher incidence of adult hypertension in people with a low birth weight. These findings, says Webb, should focus attention on the importance of early life factors in the programming of hypertension. 6. McCarron, David A. Ã¢â¬Å"Diet and high blood pressure Ã¢â¬â the paradigm shift. Ã¢â¬ Science 281. 5379 (August 14, 1998): 933-934. Doctors and nutritionists always exhort people to make a change to healthier diets because it can aid all of us in preventing deleterious diseases. According to McCarron (Aug. 14, 1998), Ã¢â¬Å"humans are nearly unique in their natural propensity to develop elevated arterial pressure, a fact attributed to both genetic and environmental factorsÃ¢â¬ . Many experts point an accusing finger on salt being the one that can contribute to the occurrence of hypertension. However, McCarron (Aug. 14, 1998) revealed that the Ã¢â¬Å"importance of salt in the pathogenesis of hypertensionÃ¢â¬ is still being debated and Ã¢â¬Å"remains undeterminedÃ¢â¬ . Experts began to accuse the extreme use of salt as the one that causes hypertension Ã¢â¬Å"when early studies indicated that salt intake increased blood pressureÃ¢â¬ . However, McCarron (Aug. 14, 1998) indicated that Ã¢â¬Å"many of these studies have since been discounted for design and methodologic flaws. But even where the methodology is sound, sodium intake cannot be linked to hypertension or higher population-wide blood pressureÃ¢â¬ . In more conclusive studies, there existed a Ã¢â¬Å"compelling evidence that adequate intake of minerals, rather than restriction of sodium, should be the focus of dietary recommendations for the general populationÃ¢â¬ . This article is enlightening due to the fact that it debunks the myth of salt being the primary cause of developing hypertension. The author suggests that we should limit our mineral intake and not just salt alone, in order to live a healthy lifestyle. We should not manipulate our diet to our own detriment, but we should shift it to become health-conscious because we are already armed with the knowledge of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s good for us. Full Text Article: McCarron, David A. Ã¢â¬Å"Diet and high blood pressure Ã¢â¬â the paradigm shift. Ã¢â¬ Science 281. n5379 (August 14, 1998): 933(2). HypertensionÃ¢â¬âa serious health problem for industrialized societiesÃ¢â¬âcontributes significantly to the risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Among vertebrates, humans are nearly unique in their natural propensity to develop elevated arterial pressure, a fact attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Only certain highly inbred strains of rodents and genetically engineered animals also spontaneously exhibit hypertension. Public policy has generally recommended that blood pressure can best be controlled by restriction of sodium chloride intake and with medication (1). Recent research has, however, emphasized the powerful role of total diet in the etiology and treatment of hypertension, suggesting that the focus of current public policy regarding nutrition and blood pressure is too narrow. Limitation of sodium chloride in food has historically been the dietary mantra of those who set nutritional policy for hypertension. Nevertheless, the importance of salt in the pathogenesis of hypertension has long been debated (2-4) and remains undetermined (5). The intense focus on sodium began when early studies indicated that salt intake increased blood pressure. These studies, many conducted decades ago, included epidemiologic surveys in primitive societies, clinical trials in patients with kidney disease, and animal investigations in which sodium intake levels cannot be realistically extrapolated to humans (6). Many of these studies have since been discounted for design and methodologic flaws. But even where the methodology is sound, sodium intake cannot be linked to hypertension or higher population-wide blood pressure (7). Two recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trialsÃ¢â¬âone examining the effects of sodium restriction (8) and the other of calcium supplementation on arterial pressure (9)Ã¢â¬âprovide compelling evidence that adequate intake of minerals, rather than restriction of sodium, should be the focus of dietary recommendations for the general population. Assessing 56 trials of sodium restriction, Midgley et al. (8) concluded that individuals with normal blood pressure gained nothing from limiting sodium intake and that only older ([is greater than] 45 years) hypertensive people might benefit, a conclusion recently confirmed by other investigators (5). Midgley et al. also reported that the magnitudes of the blood pressure reductions were not consistently related to the amount of sodium intake, indicating that confounding factors were contributing to the changes in blood pressure. Indeed, in a meta-analysis of calcium supplementation trials, Bucher et al. (9) identified a small but consistent drop in blood pressure when normotensive and hypertensive persons consumed more calcium. They speculated that baseline calcium intake or increased biological need for minerals might be responsible for the blood pressure variability not otherwise accounted for in their analysis. These two reports presaged the outcomes of two large clinical trials from the NIH, published in 1997 (10, 11). The Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) II is the largest and longest study ever executed to test whether sodium restriction lowers arterial pressure and prevents the emergence of new hypertension cases (I0). No benefit was detected for the primary endpoint diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure decreased minimally (0. 7 mmHg), almost precisely the value that the Midgley (8) analysis projected. Furthermore, the TOHP II data demonstrated a dissociation between the extent of sodium restriction and the observed blood pressure reduction. The second large-scale study was the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine (11). As would be predicted by Bucher et al. (9) in their meta-analysis of calcium studies, in persons whose intake of dairy products (and therefore calcium and other minerals) was well below currently recommended levels, blood pressure decreased significantly when the recommended amounts were included in their diets. In the DASH diet that was rich in dairy products, fruits, and vegetables and lower in fat (with sodium held constant), blood pressure decreased 5 to 6 mmHg in subjects with normal blood pressure; in those with mild hypertension, this blood pressure reduction was doubled, to 11 to 12 mmHg. Reductions of this magnitude have been observed previously only with antihypertensive medications. A second DASH diet, which included increased amounts of fruits and vegetables but did not include dairy products, produced more modest but still significant systolic blood pressure reductions, easily surpassing those observed with sodium restriction in TOHP II. DASH confirmed the meta-analyses as well as earlier indications from observational studies that dietary factors other than sodium markedly affected blood pressure (3, 12). For example, one of the earlier studies (12) identified inadequate calcium intake from dairy products as the dietary pattern most prevalent in individuals with untreated hypertension. Another study (3), in which nutrient intake was assessed from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), confirmed this dietary pattern in hypertensive individuals and identified the relative absence of fruits and vegetables in the American diet as the second best predictor of elevated blood pressure. These studies suggested that where intake of other critical nutrients is adequate, sodium intake at levels typically consumed in most societies might actually be associated with lower blood pressure. They also concluded that the absence of specific nutrients (calcium, potassium, and magnesium), resulting from low consumption of dairy products, fruits, and vegetables, is associated with hypertension in Americans (3, 12). The TOHP II study adds to the substantial body of literature that challenges the public health emphasis on sodium restriction as the primary nutritional means of improving blood pressure. The issue is further complicated by concerns raised in several recent reports (5, 13, 14) that the long-term effect of sodium restriction on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality may be the opposite of what has always been assumed. The DASH study provides a clear rationale for focusing our public health strategy on adequate intake of low-fat dairy products and fruits and vegetables. The consistency of the accumulated data is evident when the blood pressure changes seen with the DASH diet (11) are superimposed on the blood pressure profile of Americans as a function of calcium intake from (3) (see the figure). According to these data (3, 11), if the intakes of calcium and other nutrients obtained through low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables were increased to the amounts readily achieved in the DASH study, the percentage of Americans with moderately severe hypertension (160/100 to 179/109 mmHg) would be decreased by nearly half, from approximately 9% to 5%. For the millions more with borderline elevations, the benefits are likely to be at least as great. Whether hypertension is genetic or environmental in origin, control of dietary mineral intake has a place in its management and prevention. As a society, we will not achieve the dramatic reversal in hypertensive heart disease that DASH and other studies clearly show is possible until we direct our efforts to the nutritional factors and dietary patterns that are actually relevant to this condition. In addition, diets low in fat but high in calcium, fruits, and vegetables are not prevalent in the subgroups of society at greatest risk for hypertensive cardiac diseaseÃ¢â¬âthe elderly and African Americans. An added plus: A diet low in fat but high in calcium, fruits, and vegetables is also consistent with reduction of two other major public health problems, osteoporosis and cancer (15, 16). The emphasis on sodium as the single dietary culprit is counterproductive to our significantly reducing cardiovascular risk for most of us (5) and diverts attention from the issues we need to address (17). Ã¢â¬Å"Food productsÃ¢â¬ such as snacks and soft drinks added to our diets in recent years have supplanted nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and milk. This shift in dietary patterns, and simultaneous suboptimal nutrient intake, is also far more likely to contribute to the prevalence of hypertension than salt, which has always been a component of the human diet. Humans may be unique in our propensity to develop hypertension simply because we are the only species with the capacity to manipulate our diets to our own detriment. References (1.) Ã¢â¬Å"The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure,Ã¢â¬ Arch. Intern. Med. 157, 2413 (1997). (2. ) G. Kolata, Science 216, 38 (1982). (3. ) D. A. McCarron, C. D. Morris, H. J. Henry, J. L. Stanton, ibid. 224, 139Z (1984). (4. ) J. D. Swales, Br. Med. J. 297, 307 (1988). (5. ) N. A. Graudal, A. M. Gallee, P. Gaffed, JAMA 279, 1383 (1998). (6. ) M. Muntzel and T. Drueke, Am. J. Hypertens. 5, 1S (1992). (7. ) Intersalt Cooperative Research Group, Br. Med. J. 297, 319 (1988). (8. ) J. P. Midgley, A. G. Matthew, C. I. T. Greenwood, A. G. Logan, JAMA 275, 1590 (1996). (9. ) H. C. Bucher et al. , ibid. , p. 1016. (10. ) Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group, Arch. Intern. Med. 157, 657 (1997). (11. ) L. J. Appel et al. , N. Engl. J. Med. 336, 1117 (1997). (12. ) D. A. McCarron, C. Morris, C. Cole, Science 217, 267 (198Z). (13. ) M. H. Alderman, S. Madhavan, H. Cohen, J. E. Seatey, J. H. Laragh, Hypertension 25, 1144 (1995). (14. ) H. H. Alderman, H. Cohen, S. Madhavan, Lancet 351, 781 (1998).